Studying the Factors Contributing to the Sexual Harassment of Women in Jalalabad City, Afghanistan: A Social Perspective


  • Imranullah Akhtar Head of the Professional Development Center, Lecturer in Law and Political Science, Alfalah University, Nangarhar, Afghanistan.
  • Abdul Basit Khedam Lecturer in Law & Political Science, Al-Taqwa Institute of Higher Education, Nangarhar, Afghanistan.



Sexual Harassment, Women of Jalalabad City, Feminism, Social Factors, Prevention Methods


This research looked at the social causes of sexual harassment of women in Jalalabad City, Afghanistan, and discovered workable solutions. The study included descriptive analyses, content analysis, field-based data collecting, and a qualitative methodology. Semi-structured interviews with married women who experienced sexual harassment, offenders, and community members were used to gather qualitative data. Two hundred semi-structured interviews with a representative sample of married women in Jalalabad City, Afghanistan, were conducted as part of the survey research approach. This research examined the ways in which patriarchal attitudes, societal norms, dominant expectations, sexual perception, non-mahrams, cohabitation, excessive freedom, honor culture contribute to sexual harassment. The study, based on feminist theory, identified 20 societal factors contributing to sexual harassment, including social stigma, lack of knowledge, and negligent legal enforcement, and suggested preventive measures like community education campaigns and legislative changes. In Jalalabad City, Afghanistan, sexual harassment of women is a serious issue with societal contributing elements. Effective prevention of sexual harassment requires a holistic strategy that addresses societal norms, empowers women, and strengthens legal frameworks, while also considering cultural norms, inadequate enforcement mechanisms, and a culture of silence. In order to advance gender equality, provide safer surroundings, and stop sexual harassment of women in Jalalabad City, Afghanistan, this paper makes specific recommendations for legislators, non-governmental organizations, and local authorities. Based on these findings, this study recommends evidence-based prevention methods. These could involve advertisements for sexual harassment awareness, legal changes for better protection, and training for law enforcement on handling complaints more effectively.


Akpotor, J. (2013). Sexism and sexual harassment in tertiary institutions. Gender and Behavior, 11(1), 5237–5243.

Ali, K. (2016). Sexual ethics and Islam: feminist reflections on Qur'an, hadith, and jurisprudence. Simon and Schuster.

Azizi, H. (2022). Legal Analysis of Sexual Harassment of Women in Afghanistan. World Women’s Studies Journal, 7(1), 65–88.

Berdahl, J. L. (2007). Harassment based on sex: Protecting social status in the context of gender hierarchy. The Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 641–658.

Bhat, R. Deshpande, A. (2017). An Overview of Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace in India: An Analytical Study. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 6(7), 14361–14369.

Chaudhury, S., Srivastava, K., Bhat, P., & Sahu, S. (2017). Misogyny, feminism, and sexual harassment. Industrial Psychiatry Journal/Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 26(2), 111.

Folorunso, O. K. (2023, October). There is a Psychology Behind Sexual Harassment. I tried writing on it in my own words but couldn't really do justice [Image attached] [Post]. LinkedIn.

Galdi, S., & Guizzo, F. (2020). Media-Induced Sexual Harassment: The Routes from Sexually Objectifying Media to Sexual Harassment. Sex Roles, 84(11–12), 645–669.

Glass, C., Cook, A., & Pierce, B. (2020). Do women in leadership reduce sexual harassment claims on college campuses? Journal of Women and Gender in Higher Education, 13(2), 193–210.

Hemat, T. (2023). A Research Study of Women's Harassment Crimes: A Case Study in Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan. Neuroquantology, 20(14), 1219-1250. NQ880169

Henry, H. M. (2016). Sexual Harassment in the Egyptian streets: Feminist Theory revisited. Sexuality & Culture, 21(1), 270–286.

Jha, N. D. S. (2020). Study of violence against women. The Creative Launcher, 5(2), 104–108.

Joseph, J. (2015). Sexual harassment in tertiary institutions: A comparative perspective. Temida, 18(2), 125–144.

Lahsaeizadeh, A., & Yousefinejad, E. (2011). Social aspects of women’s experiences of sexual harassment in public places in Iran. Sexuality & Culture, 16(1), 17–37.

Mir-Hosseini, Z. (2011). Criminalizing sexuality: Zina laws as violence against women in Muslim contexts. SUR-Int'l J. on Hum Rts., 8, 7.

Muneer, S. (2017). Pro-women laws in Pakistan: challenges towards implementation. Pakistan Vision, 18(2), 86–101.

Orfan, S. N., Ibrahimi, F., & Noori, A. Q. (2022). Sexual harassment of higher education female students in Afghanistan: A case study. Issues in Educational Research, 32(2), 659–680.

Popoola, B. (2010). Peer sexual harassment and coping mechanisms of female students in a Nigerian university. Edo Journal of Counselling, 1(1).

Rennison, C. M. (2014). Feminist theory in the context of sexual violence. In Springer eBooks (pp. 1617–1627).

Rostamzadeh, E., Mohseni, F., & Rahim, R. A. (2016). Social perspective and causal factors influencing women prostitution in Iran. Asian Social Science, 12(10), 106.

Sarawgi, S. (2023, December). Sexual harassment is an unwelcome sexual advance, unwelcome request for sexual favors or other unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature [Image attached] [Post]. LinkedIn.

Schweinle, W. E. and Roseman, C. P. (2015). Sexual harassment training: Effective strategies. In M. Paludi, J. Martin, and J. Gruber and S. Fineran (Eds.), Sexual harassment in education and work settings: Current research and best practices for prevention (p. 247–260). CT: Praeger Publishers.

Shi, X., & Zheng, Y. (2020). Feminist Active Commitment and Sexual Harassment Perception among Chinese Women: The Moderating Roles of Targets’ Gender Stereotypicality and Type of Harassment. Sex Roles, 84(7–8), pp. 477–490.

Soleimani, E. (2010). Prostitution and its challenges as latent social damage and preventive guidelines. In Proceeding of the first national seminar on effective social factors on safety in Tehran (pp. 14-21).

Usman, A. (2018). A Sociological Study on Violence against Women in Pakistan; Challenges and Solutions. Global Media Journal Australia, 16(31), 1–11.

Zahra, P. (2024, June). Sexual harassment is a devastating workplace problem that transcends industries and sectors. In retail, an industry that impacts the lives [Image attached] [Post]. LinkedIn.



How to Cite

Akhtar, I., & Khedam, A. B. (2024). Studying the Factors Contributing to the Sexual Harassment of Women in Jalalabad City, Afghanistan: A Social Perspective. Journal of Higher Education and Development Studies (JHEDS), 4(1), 207–219.