Effect of Digital Transformation on Students’ Learning Outcomes: A Mediating Role of Teacher Resilience


  • Muhammad Naseem Abid PhD Scholar, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
  • Warda Latif Dr. Hasan Murad School of Management, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
  • Abdul Ghaffar Dr. Hasan Murad School of Management, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.




Digital Transformation, Teacher Resilience, Student Learning Outcomes, University Level, Education


This study explores the influence of digital transformation on student learning outcomes, highlighting the mediating role of teacher resilience in Pakistani educational settings. Adopting a quantitative research design, the study collected data from 336 educators using structured surveys administered through Google Forms. Data analysis was performed using Smart-PLS-4, a robust tool for structural equation modeling, to dissect the interrelations among digital transformation, teacher resilience, and student learning achievements. The findings indicate that digital transformation markedly improves student learning outcomes, with teacher resilience playing a pivotal mediating role. Teachers adept in utilizing digital tools significantly boost student engagement and academic performance. These results underscore the importance of enhancing digital competencies and resilience among educators to fully leverage digital technologies' educational advantages.


Aboelmaged, M., & Hashem, G. (2019). Absorptive capacity and green innovation adoption in SMEs: The mediating effects of sustainable organisational capabilities. Journal of Cleaner Production, 220, 853-863. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.02.150

Al-Karaki, J. N., Ababneh, N., Hamid, Y., & Gawanmeh, A. J. C. E. T. (2021). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Distance Learning in Higher Education during COVID-19 Global Crisis: UAE Educators' Perspectives. Contemporary Educational Technology, 13(3), ep311. https://doi.org/10.30935/cedtech/10945

Beltman, S., Mansfield, C., & Price, A. (2011). Thriving not just surviving: A review of research on teacher resilience. Educational Research Review, 6(3), 185-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2011.09.001

Bogdandy, B., Tamas, J., & Toth, Z. (2020). Digital transformation in education during COVID-19: A case study. 2020 11th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Infocommunications (CogInfoCom). https://doi.org/10.1109/coginfocom50765.2020.9237840

Borko, H., Jacobs, J., & Koellner, K. (2010). Contemporary approaches to teacher professional development. International Encyclopedia of Education, 548-556. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-08-044894-7.00654-0

Brink, H., Kilbrink, N., & Gericke, N. (2021). Teaching digital models: Secondary technology teachers’ experiences. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 32(3), 1755-1775. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10798-021-09659-5

Brunetti, F., Matt, D. T., Bonfanti, A., De Longhi, A., Pedrini, G., & Orzes, G. (2020). Digital transformation challenges: Strategies emerging from a multi-stakeholder approach. The TQM Journal, 32(4), 697-724. https://doi.org/10.1108/tqm-12-2019-0309

Crittenden, W. F., Biel, I. K., & Lovely, W. A. (2018). Embracing digitalization: Student learning and new technologies. Journal of Marketing Education, 41(1), 5-14. https://doi.org/10.1177/0273475318820895

Dal Mas, F., Cobianchi, L., Piccolo, D., & Barach, P. J. H. C. O. C. G. D. (2021). 11 Knowledge Translation during the COVID-19 Pandemic. In Routledge eBooks (pp. 139–150). https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003092025-11-14

Ebersöhn, L. (2014). Teacher resilience: Theorizing resilience and poverty. Teachers and Teaching, 20(5), 568-594. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2014.937960

Efimov, V., & Laptevа, A. (2018). The future of universities: Is digitalization the priority? (Expert View). Žurnal Sibirskogo Federalʹnogo Universiteta. Gumanitarnye Nauki/Žurnal Sibirskogo Federalʹnogo Universiteta. Seriâ Gumanitarnye Nauki, 11(12), 1925–1946. https://doi.org/10.17516/1997-1370-0367

García-Morales, V. J., Garrido-Moreno, A., & Martín-Rojas, R. (2021). The transformation of higher education after the COVID disruption: Emerging challenges in an online learning scenario. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.616059

Gillespie, B. M., Chaboyer, W., & Wallis, M. (2007). Development of a theoretically derived model of resilience through concept analysis. Contemporary Nurse, 25(1-2), 124-135. https://doi.org/10.5172/conu.2007.25.1-2.124

Gratacós, G., Mena, J., & Ciesielkiewicz, M. (2021). The complexity thinking approach: Beginning teacher resilience and perceived self-efficacy as determining variables in the induction phase. European Journal of Teacher Education, 46(2), 331-348. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2021.1900113

Hair, J. F., Risher, J. J., Sarstedt, M., & Ringle, C. M. (2019). When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. European Business Review, 31(1), 2-24. https://doi.org/10.1108/ebr-11-2018-0203

Halilić, M., & Tinjić, D. (2020). The Impact of Digitalization on Student Academic Performance in Higher Education : Investigating the change in academic performance of university level students after a sudden switch to digital education due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Case of Jönköping International Business School [Dissertation]. Jönköping University. https://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-50437

Hanelt, A., Bohnsack, R., Marz, D., & Antunes Marante, C. (2020). A systematic review of the literature on digital transformation: Insights and implications for strategy and organizational change. Journal of Management Studies, 58(5), 1159-1197. https://doi.org/10.1111/joms.12639

Henry, A. M. (2008). The relationship of age, gender, and personality style with the level of technology implementation at the university level [PhD Thesis]. Walden University. https://www.learntechlib.org/p/125209/

Howard, S., Dryden, J., & Johnson, B. (1999). Childhood resilience: Review and critique of literature. Oxford Review of Education, 25(3), 307-323. https://doi.org/10.1080/030549899104008

Juuti, K., Kervinen, A., & Loukomies, A. (2022). Quality over frequency in using digital technology: Measuring the experienced functional use. Computers & Education, 176, 104361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2021.104361

Khalid, J., Ram, B. R., Soliman, M., Ali, A. J., Khaleel, M., & Islam, M. S. J. I. J. o. M. i. E. (2018). Promising digital university: A pivotal need for higher education transformation. International Journal of Management in Education, 12(3), 264.-275. https://doi.org/10.1504/ijmie.2018.10012328

Li, S. (2023). The effect of teacher self-efficacy, teacher resilience, and emotion regulation on teacher burnout: A mediation model. Frontiers in Psychology, 14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1185079

Lombardi, R., Massaro, M., Dumay, J., & Nappo, F. (2019). Entrepreneurial universities and strategy: The case of the University of Bari. Management Decision, 57(12), 3387-3405. https://doi.org/10.1108/md-06-2018-0690

Mahlangu, V. P. (2018). The good, the bad, and the ugly of distance learning in higher education. Trends in E-learning. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.75702

Mansfield, C. F., Beltman, S., Broadley, T., & Weatherby-Fell, N. (2016). Building resilience in teacher education: An evidenced informed framework. Teaching and Teacher Education, 54, 77-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2015.11.016

Maqableh, M., & Alia, M. (2021). Evaluation online learning of undergraduate students under lockdown amidst COVID-19 pandemic: The online learning experience and students’ satisfaction. Children and Youth Services Review, 128, 106160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2021.106160

Massaro, M., Dumay, J., & Garlatti, A. (2015). Public sector knowledge management: A structured literature review. Journal of Knowledge Management, 19(3), 530-558. https://doi.org/10.1108/jkm-11-2014-0466

Mathur, S., & Gupta, U. J. L. (2016). Transforming higher education through digitalization: insights. 3(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781003132097

Mielgo-Conde, I., Seijas-Santos, S., & Grande-de-Prado, M. (2021). Review about online educational guidance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Education Sciences, 11(8), 411. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11080411

Montenegro-Rueda, M., Luque-de la Rosa, A., Sarasola Sánchez-Serrano, J. L., & Fernández-Cerero, J. (2021). Assessment in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review. Sustainability, 13(19), 10509. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910509

Mustapha, I., Thuy Van, N., Shahverdi, M., Qureshi, M. I., & Khan, N. (2021). Effectiveness of digital technology in education during COVID-19 pandemic. A bibliometric analysis. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), 15(08), 136. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijim.v15i08.20415

Mustapha, I., Thuy Van, N., Shahverdi, M., Qureshi, M. I., & Khan, N. (2021). Effectiveness of digital technology in education during COVID-19 pandemic. A bibliometric analysis. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), 15(08), 136. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijim.v15i08.20415

Navaridas-Nalda, F., Clavel-San Emeterio, M., Fernández-Ortiz, R., & Arias-Oliva, M. (2020). The strategic influence of school principal leadership in the digital transformation of schools. Computers in Human Behavior, 112, 106481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106481

Netta, A., Trisnawati, I. K., & Helmanda, C. M. (2020). Indonesian EFL students' strategies in dealing with speaking anxiety in public speaking course. ACCENTIA: Journal of English Language and Education, 1(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.37598/accentia.v1i1.807

Nicolás-Agustín, Á., Jiménez-Jiménez, D., & Maeso-Fernandez, F. (2021). The role of human resource practices in the implementation of digital transformation. International Journal of Manpower, 43(2), 395-410. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijm-03-2021-0176

OECD., K. (2018). OECD science, technology and innovation outlook 2018. OECD publishing Paris.

Phillips, R. (2021). Teachers’ faith, identity processes and resilience: A qualitative approach. British Journal of Religious Education, 43(3), 310-319. https://doi.org/10.1080/01416200.2021.1891860

Salta, K., Paschalidou, K., Tsetseri, M., & Koulougliotis, D. (2021). Shift from a traditional to a distance learning environment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Science & Education, 31(1), 93-122. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11191-021-00234-x

Saunders, B., Sim, J., Kingstone, T., Baker, S., Waterfield, J., Bartlam, B., Burroughs, H., & Jinks, C. (2017). Saturation in qualitative research: Exploring its conceptualization and operationalization. Quality & Quantity, 52(4), 1893-1907. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-017-0574-8

Sedelmaier, Y., & Landes, D. (1-3 July, 2019 2019). CLARIFYING THE EFFECTS OF DIGITALIZATION ON (HIGHER) EDUCATION. EDULEARN19 Proceedings, 8114–8121. https://doi.org/10.21125/edulearn.2019.1991

Shaughnessy, H. (2018). Creating digital transformation: Strategies and steps. Strategy & Leadership, 46(2), 19-25. https://doi.org/10.1108/sl-12-2017-0126

Soncini, A., Politi, E., & Matteucci, M. C. (2021). Teachers navigating distance learning during COVID-19 without feeling emotionally exhausted: The protective role of self-efficacy. School Psychology, 36(6), 494-503. https://doi.org/10.1037/spq0000469

Sung, E., & Mayer, R. E. (2013). Online multimedia learning with mobile devices and desktop computers: An experimental test of Clark’s methods-not-media hypothesis. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 639-647. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.10.022

Trigueros, R., Padilla, A., Aguilar-Parra, J. M., Mercader, I., López-Liria, R., & Rocamora, P. (2020). The influence of transformational teacher leadership on academic motivation and resilience, burnout and academic performance. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(20), 7687. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207687

Ugur, N. G. (2020). Digitalization in higher education: A qualitative approach. International Journal of Technology in Education and Science, 4(1), 18-25. https://doi.org/10.46328/ijtes.v4i1.24

Vance, A., Pendergast, D., & Garvis, S. (2015). Teaching resilience: A narrative inquiry into the importance of teacher resilience. Pastoral Care in Education, 33(4), 195-204. https://doi.org/10.1080/02643944.2015.1074265

Verhoef, P. C., Broekhuizen, T., Bart, Y., Bhattacharya, A., Qi Dong, J., Fabian, N., & Haenlein, M. (2021). Digital transformation: A multidisciplinary reflection and research agenda. Journal of Business Research, 122, 889-901. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.09.022

Wang, X., Liu, Z., Li, J., & Lei, X. (2023). How organizational unlearning leverages digital process innovation to improve performance: The moderating effects of smart technologies and environmental turbulence. Technology in Society, 75, 102395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2023.102395

Williamson, B., Eynon, R., & Potter, J. (2020). Pandemic politics, pedagogies and practices: Digital technologies and distance education during the coronavirus emergency. Learning, Media and Technology, 45(2), 107-114. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439884.2020.1761641



How to Cite

Abid, M. N., Latif, W., & Ghaffar, A. (2024). Effect of Digital Transformation on Students’ Learning Outcomes: A Mediating Role of Teacher Resilience. Journal of Higher Education and Development Studies (JHEDS), 4(1), 235–251. https://doi.org/10.59219/jheds.04.01.63